What We Know About Black Storks

Cameras Watching over Black Storks nest
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Anne7
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Re: What We Know About Black Storks

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MORE NEW PUBLICATIONS 2021

Integumentary Colour Allocation in the Stork Family (Ciconiidae) Reveals Short-Range Visual Cues for Species Recognition
by Eduardo J. Rodríguez-Rodríguez and Juan J. Negro
Published: 17 March 2021

Abstract
The family Ciconiidae comprises 19 extant species which are highly social when nesting and foraging. All species share similar morphotypes, with long necks, a bill, and legs, and are mostly coloured in the achromatic spectrum (white, black, black, and white, or shades of grey). Storks may have, however, brightly coloured integumentary areas in, for instance, the bill, legs, or the eyes. These chromatic patches are small in surface compared with the whole body. We have analyzed the conservatism degree of colouration in 10 body areas along an all-species stork phylogeny derived from BirdTRee using Geiger models. We obtained low conservatism in frontal areas (head and neck), contrasting with a high conservatism in the rest of the body. The frontal areas tend to concentrate the chromatic spectrum whereas the rear areas, much larger in surface, are basically achromatic. These results lead us to suggest that the divergent evolution of the colouration of frontal areas is related to species recognition through visual cue assessment in the short-range, when storks form mixed-species flocks in foraging or resting areas.
Simple Summary
The Ciconiidae family includes 19 extant species distributed in both the Old and the New World. While all species are similar in morphotype, with dominant black or white plumage colouration, storks may also display some highly coloured areas in small patches of the integument, including bill, legs, and the head. We have tested the conservatism of colour characters in different parts of the body, aiming at detecting highly and lowly conserved characters. Non-conserved coloured areas are located in frontal zones but cover a low proportion of the entire body and are only visible at close range. These results provide further support to the species recognition hypothesis to explain colour patch allocation in closely related bird species with sympatric distributions.
https://www.mdpi.com/2673-6004/2/1/10/htm


Head and body orientation of the White Stork Ciconia ciconia during incubation:
effect of wind, apex predators and power lines

Adam Zbyryt, Łukasz Jankowiak, Leszek Jerzak & Piotr Tryjanowski
Journal of Ornithology (2021)

Abstract
Incubation behaviour is essential for understanding the reproductive success in birds. For example, the orientation of the bird is important for reducing incubation costs associated with wind or sun, but on the other hand can be modified by the perceived risk of predation. We studied the body position of incubating White Stork Ciconia ciconia in eastern Poland using a small unmanned aerial vehicle (drone). The head and body orientation of the incubating storks was non-random and modified by natural factors, mainly wind direction and speed, but also by the presence of an apex predator, the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla. However, head orientation during incubation in nests located on electricity poles was also modified by the presence of the power lines, probably due to disturbance in the magnetic field detected by birds. Surprisingly, although the positioning of incubating birds (mainly females) is very important for the detection of predators and for reducing energy costs, these have not previously been studied. New technologies, such as drones, make it possible to collect new, extensive information on the incubation behaviour of birds.
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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MORE NEW PUBLICATIONS 2021

West Nile and Usutu virus infections in wild birds admitted to rehabilitation centres in Extremadura, western Spain, 2017–2019
Daniel Bravo-Barriga, Pilar Aguilera-Sepúlveda, Fátima Guerrero-Carvajal, Francisco Llorente, David Reina, J. Enrique Pérez-Martín, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero, Eva Frontera
Veterinary Microbiology; Volume 255, April 2021

Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging flavivirus transmitted generally by mosquitoes of Culex genus. It is maintained in an enzootic life cycle where birds act as reservoir hosts. Humans and horses are also susceptible to infection, and occasionally, they suffer from neurological complications. However, they do not transmit the virus to other vectors, behaving as dead-end hosts. Sporadic WNV outbreaks observed in horses and wild birds from Extremadura (western Spain) during 2016 and 2017 seasons prompted to carry out this survey in wild birds, focused on specimens coming from two wildlife rehabilitation centres. Between October 2017 and December 2019, samples from 391 wild birds, belonging to 56 different species were collected and analysed in search of evidence of WNV infection. The analysis of serum samples for WNV-specific antibodies by ELISA, whose specificity was subsequently confirmed by virus-neutralisation test (VNT) showed positive results in 18.23 % birds belonging to 18 different species. Pelecaniformes (33.33 %), Accipitriformes (25.77 %) and Strigiformes (22.92 %) orders had the higher seroprevalences. Remarkably, WNV-specific antibodies were found in a black stork for the first time in Europe. Analysis by real time RT-PCR in symptomatic birds confirmed the presence of WNV lineage 1 RNA in griffon vulture and little owls. Specificity analysis of ELISA positive and doubtful sera was performed by differential VNT titration against WNV and two other cross-reacting avian flaviviruses found in Spain: Usutu virus (USUV) and Bagaza virus (BAGV). Only four samples showed USUV-specific antibodies (1.04 %) corresponding to three species: Eurasian eagle-owl, griffon vulture and great bustard (first detection in Europe) whereas no samples were found reactive to BAGV. Differential VNT yielded undetermined flavivirus result in 16 samples (4.17 %). This is the first study carried out on wild birds from Extremadura (western Spain). It highlights the widespread circulation of WNV in the region and its co-circulation with USUV.
Highlights
• A high prevalence and wide distribution of WNV were evidenced in wild birds from Spain.
• Flavivirus specific antibodies were detected in 19 different species.
• WNV was reported for the first time in Europe in a black stork (Ciconia nigra).
• USUV was reported for the first time in Europe in a great bustard (Otis tarda).
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a ... 3521000432
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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In Estonian:
Estonian University of Life Sciences, Projekti nr 17341
I kategooria kaitsealuste liikide must-toonekure ja kalakotka
Eesti asurkondade demograafilise seisundi analüüs
lõpparuanne *

(* Category I protected species Black Stork and Osprey
Analysis of the demographic status of Estonian populations
Final report
)

Finantseerija: Keskkonnainvesteeringute Keskus
Täitja: Eesti Maaülikool
Aruande koostaja: Ülo Väli,
koostöös Rein Nellis ja Joosep Tuvi
Tartu 2021

https://dspace.emu.ee/bitstream/handle/ ... sequence=3
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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Dynamic multistate occupancy modeling to evaluate population dynamics under a scenario of preferential sampling
Guillermo Fandos, Marc Kéry, Luis Santiago Cano-Alonso, Isidoro Carbonell, José Luis Tellería
(2021)

Abstract
Effective conservation of animal populations depends on the availability of reliable data derived from rigorous monitoring protocols, which allows us to assess trends and understand the processes they are governed by. Nevertheless, population monitoring schemes are hampered by multiple sources of errors resulting from specific logistical and survey constraints. Two common complications are the non-visitation of some sites in certain years and preferential sampling (PS), that is, the tendency to survey “better” sites disproportionately more often. Both factors can lead to serious biases unless accommodated into models. We used 22 yr of nest-monitoring data to develop a dynamic multistate occupancy model, including a PS component to investigate occupancy and reproduction dynamics in a peripheral Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) population in Spain. We analyzed the effects of climate and nesting substrate (tree vs. cliff) on population dynamics and accounted for PS and non-visitation biases using a model that distinguished three territorial states: unoccupied, occupied without, or occupied with successful reproduction. We found strong evidence for positive PS, and when accounting for this bias, lower population size estimates were generated. Black stork nests had a high probability of remaining in the same state from one year to the next, with successful nests more likely to be occupied again and to be successful the following year than occupied but unsuccessful or unoccupied nests. Nesting substrate and spring precipitation did not influence state transition probabilities or the probability of reproductive success; nevertheless, cliff nest occupancy was overall higher than tree nest occupancy. Our results highlight the importance of correcting for non-visitation and PS in habitat occupancy models. If these potential biasing effects are not accounted for, inferences of population size may be overestimate. Multistate occupancy models with correction for PS offer a powerful analytical framework for data collected as part of population studies of unmarked animals. These models compensate for common methodological biases in biological surveys and can help implement efficient conservation strategies based on robust population dynamics estimates.
Introduction
Increased pressure from human action and global change are driving unprecedented levels of biodiversity loss (Brook et al. 2008, IPBES 2019). There is overwhelming evidence indicating that the extinction risk of a species increases when its population size begins to decline (Norris 2004). However, a more fundamental understanding of the links between population processes and global environmental changes are still required to identify appropriate management and conservation strategies (Ehrlén and Morris 2015). Most biodiversity conservation studies focus on measuring species richness and patterns of species occurrence (Schurr et al. 2012); however, much less attention is paid to understanding the dynamic processes that create these patterns, that is, species’ population dynamics (but see Schaub and Abadi 2011, Zipkin et al. 2019). A focus on just changes in species' ranges may fail to capture many of the population-level processes—including local extinctions and recolonizations, and the changes in demographic rates that govern them—that underlie these shifts. Therefore, the implementation of effective conservation measures requires the assessment of population dynamics, while the interpretation of population fluctuations obliges us to undertake specific and long-term monitoring studies (Nichols et al. 2007).
In this study, we used 22 yr of nest-site occupancy data to explore the population dynamics of a peripheral and geographically isolated black stork (Ciconia nigra) population in the south-western extreme of its Palearctic range (W Spain; del Hoyo et al. 1992). The black stork has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe (listed in Annex I of the EU Birds Directive; 2009/147/EC) and has undergone severe population declines in some parts of its Palearctic range (Konovalov et al. 2019). In light of this, inference regarding the dynamics of nest occupancy and breeding success will be of particular interest when designing monitoring and conservation programs and will facilitate long-term evaluations of population dynamics and interannual variations. However, accurately determining population dynamics from long monitoring schemes, as our dataset, is a major challenge, since these programs are difficult to maintain over time and in consequence often suffer from a lack of standardized protocols (Kéry and Schmidt 2008, Johnston et al. 2020). Therefore, incorrect conclusions about monitored populations can arise from different biases (Irvine et al. 2018), such as imperfect observation (Kéry and Schmidt 2008, Kéry and Royle 2016), non-random sampling (Yoccoz et al. 2001), and coverage bias, which occurs when some sites are not visited in certain years (Van Strien et al. 2004, Monneret et al. 2018).
https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley ... /ecs2.3469


Value of a broken umbrella: abandoned nest sites of the black stork (Ciconia nigra) host rich biodiversity
Asko Lõhmus, Kadri Runnel, Anneli Palo, Mare Leis, Renno Nellis, Riinu Rannap, Liina Remm, Raul Rosenvald & Piret Lõhmus
Biodiversity and Conservation (2021)

Abstract
Protecting habitats for charismatic vertebrates can provide an ‘umbrella’ for less conspicuous organisms, especially when these are threatened by the same processes. However, such a conservation scheme is vulnerable to the extirpation of the focal species. We studied wider biodiversity values in long protected black stork (Ciconia nigra) nest sites, which were abandoned by the bird and thus legally subject to de-listing. In 20 abandoned nest sites in Estonia, we (i) mapped breeding birds within 600 m from the stork nest, and (ii) carried out time-limited surveys of lichens, polypore fungi, vascular plants and bryophytes in 2-ha plots. The breeding bird assemblages (64 species recorded) included 19 red-listed species, and showed no clear aggregation to the immediate surroundings of the stork nest. We recorded 740 plant and fungal species, of which 134 (18%) were of conservation concern (nationally protected, red-listed or extremely rare). Across the 2-ha plots, the numbers of the species of conservation concern varied more than three-fold (maximum 42 species), being affected notably by dead wood accumulation over time and presence of nemoral broad-leaved trees. The results demonstrate that many abandoned nest sites of the black stork have broader biodiversity significance, both due to the bird’s habitat requirements and the natural development during the protection. Expanding the umbrella function to sites abandoned by a focal species, but intact from anthropogenic degradation, can thus be a cost-effective conservation approach due to its low additional administrative burden. In most jurisdictions, the assessment procedure for such situations should be formalized, however.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.10 ... 21-02268-7
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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Animal Bodies Are 'Shape-Shifting' to Survive Climate Change, Scientists Say
.............
The beaks of birds perform a similar function – blood flow can be diverted to the bill when the bird is hot. This heat-dispersing function is depicted in the thermal image of a king parrot below, which shows the beak is warmer than the rest of the body.

All this means there are advantages to bigger appendages in warmer environments. In fact, as far back as the 1870s, American zoologist Joel Allen noted in colder climates, warm-blooded animals – also known as endotherms – tended to have smaller appendages while those in warmer climates tend to have larger ones.

...........
Why does shape-shifting matter?
Our research contributes to scientific understanding of how wildlife will respond to climate change. Apart from improving our capacity to predict the impacts of climate change, this will enable us to identify which species are most vulnerable and require conservation priority.

Last month's report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change showed we have very little time to avert catastrophic global warming.

While our research shows some animals are adapting to climate change, many will not. For example, some birds may have to maintain a particular diet which means they cannot change their beak shape. Other animals may simply not be able to evolve in time.

So while predicting how wildlife will respond to climate change is important, the best way to protect species into the future is to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prevent as much global warming as possible. The Conversation

Sara Ryding, PhD Candidate, Deakin University and Matthew Symonds, Associate professor, Deakin University.

https://www.sciencealert.com/new-resear ... ate-change
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How High Can Birds Fly?

The highest flyer of all — Rüppell's griffon vulture, native to central Africa — was confirmed to cruise at 11 278 meters after one collided with an airplane at that altitude, as reported in 1974 in the journal The Wilson Bulletin.
Many bird species live in habitats that are over 4 000 m above sea level, and others routinely fly to altitudes of approximately 3 000 to 4 000 m, especially when they're migrating, said Graham Scott, an assistant professor of biology at McMaster University in Ontario, Canada.

Somehow, these high flyers can exert themselves at exceptional altitudes. But what allows them to navigate the air up there? While these birds vary in size, they have one thing in common: a longer wingspan relative to their bodies, compared with birds that fly lower.

But it takes more than longer wings to navigate high altitudes, which come with enormous physical trials, Scott added.
"The first big challenge is that the air gets less dense," he said. "As they go higher, they have to flap harder to stay aloft, so their metabolic demands increase. The oxygen levels become more limited. At high altitudes, it gets colder, and they need to keep their bodies warm. And the air gets drier — they're more likely to lose water from breathing and evaporation, and be thirsty."
So what keeps these high fliers going? There are certainly physical adaptations that allow birds to reach exceptional heights, said Charles Bishop, a senior lecturer in zoology at the School of Biological Sciences at Bangor University in the United Kingdom. …
https://www.livescience.com/55455-how-h ... s-fly.html


Can birds fly during a sandstorm? If so, what kind of difficulties would it face?
Rex Trulove
Wildlife writer and conservationist of over a half century


Can they? Yes, if they are capable of flight. Will they? That depends on the circumstances, the wind speed, and so forth. Quite a few birds are capable of flying above a sandstorm, where the elements don’t really bother them much. However, high winds can make it difficult for birds to fly. When blowing sand and dust are added to the mix, it can be difficult for them to see or to breathe. Strong sandstorms can be like going through a sand-blaster, too. They can scour the paint off of a vehicle. You can imagine what that would do to the delicate structure of feathers.
There is also a difference between a sandstorm and a duststorm. The biggest difference is the size of the particles that are blown around. Duststorms tend to be more problematic for birds (and other animals) because the small particle size and low weight means that the dust can reach altitudes of several hundred feet above the ground or more. Sand, being heavier than dust, tends to fall to the ground much faster and depending on how hard the wind is blowing, the sand usually isn’t lifted very far off the ground.
A bird that typically flies 50 feet (15,24 meters) off the ground will probably have few problems flying during a sandstorm because they can fly above it. The same bird wouldn’t be able to get above a strong duststorm, so it would be more likely to wait it out, unless it left the area well in advance of the duststorm.
https://www.quora.com/Can-birds-fly-dur ... ld-it-face


How high can a sandstorm get?
The sand involved in the sandstorm can reach heights of approximately 3 -15 m. Usually, the height of a sandstorm corresponds to wind strength. Dust particles associated with some sandstorms have been found at 1500 m, though these are more rare.


VIDEO
Protecting People from Sand and Dust Storms

CC- World Meteorological Organization - WMO


How hazardous is the Sahara Desert crossing for migratory birds?
Indications from satellite tracking of raptors
Roine Strandberg, Raymond H. G. Klaassen, Mikael Hake, and Thomas Alerstam
ABSTRACT
We investigated the risk associated with crossing the Sahara Desert for migrating birds by evaluating more than 90 journeys across this desert by four species of raptors (osprey Pandion haliaetus, honey buzzard Pernis apivorus, marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus and Eurasian hobby Falco subbuteo) recorded by satellite telemetry. Forty per cent of the crossings included events of aberrant behaviours, such as abrupt course changes, slow travel speeds, interruptions, aborted crossings followed by retreats from the desert and failed crossings due to death, indicating difficulties for the migrants. The mortality during the Sahara crossing was 31 per cent per crossing attempt for juveniles (first autumn migration), compared with only 2 per cent for adults (autumn and spring combined). Mortality associated with the Sahara passage made up a substantial fraction (up to about half for juveniles) of the total annual mortality, demonstrating that this passage has a profound influence on survival and fitness of migrants. Aberrant behaviours resulted in late arrival at the breeding grounds and an increased probability of breeding failure (carry-over effects). This study also demonstrates that satellite tracking can be a powerful method to reveal when and where birds are exposed to enhanced risk and mortality during their annual cycles.
...
About 5000 years ago, most of western Sahara was covered by extensive areas of Mediterranean scrub and dry woodland (Moreau 1966). The development of this area, now almost devoid of vegetation, must have had a profound impact on the evolution of migratory strategies among trans-Saharan migrants to meet increasing difficulties associated with crossing of the expanding desert. The issue of desertification and climate change at the Sahara borders is controversial with contrasting indications of e.g. increasing dust storm frequencies during recent decades (Goudie & Middleton 2006) but no clear overall signs of desert expansion (Tucker et al. 1991). However, a further expansion of the Sahara Desert will probably have serious consequences for the trans-Saharan migrants given the current difficulties associated with this passage, as demonstrated in this paper.
Death in the desert is not the single most important source of mortality during migration. In fact, a similarly large proportion of travelling birds die in the Mediterranean region, partly because of illegal hunting (e.g. Panuccio 2005). This is supported by the many raptors tracked within our project disappearing in this area (Strandberg et al., unpublished data). Although desertification and climate change are of great concern for migrating birds in general, reduced hunting pressure is also important for conservational work to improve the future prospects for migrating raptors as well as other birds.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2880036/
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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White and Black Stork Legends, Myths and Omens

The following articles are rather long, but I hope you will enjoy reading them. :hi:


The Bringer of Souls: The Stork Myth In Ancient Pan-European Beliefs
By Aleksa Vučković
UPDATED 25 NOVEMBER, 2020


Ancient beliefs are often a complex puzzle and putting the pieces together can often be extremely challenging. Time has its way with unwritten traditions, and little of what wasn’t written down survives to this day. But to the keen eyes of historians, archeologists, and above all ethnologists, little everyday details can mean a lot. That means that with hard work and dedication, we can observe very old beliefs and traditions in use to this very day. Did you know that a bird – one commonly taken for granted – offers amazing insight into the beliefs of Europe’s oldest inhabitants? That’s right, the common stork played a central role in the most intimate traditions of ancient cultures, both Proto European and Indo European. Let’s learn more about the stork and how it shaped the beliefs of our forebears.

A Remnant of Something Greater: Storks in Ancient Belief

The ritualistic image of the stork is present in most modern European nations. This is a direct link that shows us that the stork was once a widespread, perhaps even unified belief across all of Europe. During the period in which Proto-European cultures emerge and developed, before many migration periods, Europeans lived in mostly matriarchal societies and maintained nature connected beliefs, which in part survived the inevitable influences of time and history.

With the migration of Indo-European tribes into the European sphere, beliefs became a mixture of the old and the new and took on new characteristics. In particular, they shifted from a largely peaceful and matriarchal viewpoint to a paradigm of war. Nevertheless, the old beliefs did not die out. And the tradition of the stork in Europe is certainly an excellent example of how old beliefs continued to thrive alongside the new thinking.
Modern European nations are often a partial “hybrid” of patriarchal haplogroups – meaning that in their DNA is often a combination of both the Proto and Indo European cultures. Certain areas, regions, and nations of Europe display more traces than the others, based on ancient migration and the development of new influential cultures.

However, it is not the DNA structure that is crucial in the preservation of ancient beliefs: it is the culture itself. With the onset of modern life and the inevitable passing of time, modern, highly developed and (mainly) Western European nations have largely distanced themselves from yearly traditions performed at home. As the classic central image of the hearth and the homestead disappears, so too are the traditional activities passed on through generations. However, in those nations in which the traditional lifestyle survives – in the villages, remote areas, rural regions, and so on – one can very easily spot traditions that are thousands of years old.

Modern Slavic nations provide the best examples of this. With a huge rural population and a strong adherence to traditional family life, the old beliefs in Slavic cultures lived longer and often survived. Considering this, it is only logical to use Slavic beliefs as the perfect lens for understanding the myth of the stork – for it is in these areas that it survives in its clearest form.
In times past, Slavs believed in a unique form of afterlife. It varied ever so slightly from tribe to tribe, but the core of the afterlife belief was the same: the soul of the deceased would pass into a bird, commonly a stork or a nightjar (in some places a moth or a bee), and travel for 40 days towards the underworld.
However, the Slavic underworld was not as grim or deathly as elsewhere – for them it was a world of green pastures and eternal summer, with an enormous linden tree guarded by the god Veles. And in the branches of this tree, the birds (souls) would roost, waiting for the time when they reincarnate. The name of this “underworld” was Vyraj ( Iryj), and it survives in many Slavic languages today, as a word to denote “ paradise.” The roosting birds would return to the world when a new child was born, bringing with them a new soul to give the newborn. Thus, the circle of reincarnation continued.

How The Stork Became A Guide Between Worlds

This reincarnation belief leads to a number of very interesting points. First, the strong adherence of all Proto and Indo Europeans with ancestor cult worship. As a result, the souls of the forebears would never be truly gone. The second point of interest is the (mostly) Indo European belief in reincarnation. And the third point of interest are the very simple observances by our ancestors regarding the natural worlds around them.
By observing the storks, which travelled south to warmer climates every year, returning with the spring, the ancient Slavs had the perfect example of their reincarnation belief. For the ancient Slaves, winter was the dark part of the year, symbolizing death. Thus, they assumed that storks – carrying the souls of the dead – travelled south, to that paradise previously mentioned. And with the arrival of the spring, the storks would return, and complete the cycle of reincarnation. To this very day, it is the most common anecdote in Slavic nations (and elsewhere in Europe) that storks bring babies to the world. What almost no one knows, is the deep and meaningful origin of this simple belief.
In Slavic languages, the words that denote a stork are a key evidence of this once widespread belief. In Ukrainian, for example, there are numerous names for a stork, and many beliefs too, but one name was for a while most common: God’s Bird (Божа птиця). In Serbia however, a stork is known as ''рода'' (roda). The core of this word, ''род'' (rod), means kin, family, lineage, tribe, genus, yield, harvest . It also denotes birth. This is a huge insight into how important this bird once was. Thus, in Serbian, its name can literally be translated as kindred, birther, and so on.

And of course, in all these nations, it is considered a great misfortune to harm, chase away, or kill a stork. To do so would bring on a great and heavy curse. That is why today, in many villages of northern Serbia, Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, and Poland, one can see numerous storks roosting in chimneys, on telephone poles, or church steeples. No one disturbs them, and everyone looks on them kindly.

The Birds Roosting in Veles’ Linden Tree

As clear evidence of shared Proto Balto Slavic roots, we can use the great importance of the stork in all modern Baltic countries today. Since 1974, the white stork has been the national bird of Lithuania, and the bird is an inseparable part of their traditions. “ My, Vilnius is big! At one end A stork stands - At the other It claps its beak,” is the beginning of an iconic Lithuanian poem related to its capital city. And like elsewhere in Europe, the Lithuanians still jokingly claim that their babies are delivered by storks! “The stork brought a brother!” is the popular saying of all Lithuanian midwifes ( “Gandras atnešė broliuką!” ). Prosperity, harmony, and love are guaranteed to every family on whose house a stork nests. And then there is Veles, a major Slavic god of earth, water, and the underworld, who is strongly connected with the linden (American basswood) tree.

But one of the unique and important insights into this ancient belief is also preserved in Germany. Just like the Slavic myths, this German belief points to a much older tradition. According to this German myth, if one lays down on the ground beside a spring that flows from beneath a tree, one can hear the merry voices of unborn children living in the underworld. This Germanic belief takes a unique turn: these unborn souls were then “fished” out by storks from rivers, streams, lakes and bogs, and then brought to newborn children. This is one of the aspects of the tradition that makes the stork a sort of a “guide” between the world of the dead and the world of the living.

Now, what if we told you that this connection between storks and souls is also found in ancient Egypt. In Egyptian hieroglyphs and iconography, the word ba (bȝ) is depicted as a black stork. Ba was one of the aspects of the human soul, more precisely a person’s personality, or everything making them unique as individuals. Ancient Egyptians believed that ba is the aspect of the soul that lives on after death. Ba was almost always depicted as a bird (often with a human head) which flies out of a tomb to travel to the afterlife. And since storks that migrated south from Europe spend the winter in Egypt, one can again draw the parallel that when they went back to Europe, the Egyptians would have considered that as the journey to the afterlife.

Could Stork Beliefs Come From the Stone Age?

Some researchers feel that the connection between birds (storks), souls, and the afterlife is even older. This leads us to the enigmatic Lascaux caves in France, which have been dated to roughly the early Magdalenian period, more than 17,000 years ago. While all the drawings are utterly fascinating, one stands out. In one of the deepest, most unreachable levels of the caves, which can be only accessed by ropes or ladders, there is a one-of-a-kind painting. It depicts a bird-headed ithyphallic man (with erect penis), seemingly being killed by an enraged buffalo. Could this be the earliest depiction of this ancient myth of souls migrating with birds? Could it be that the ancient artist deliberately painted it in the most unreachable part of the cave, which could symbolize the underworld? And lastly, can the picture be the simplest evidence we need: the hunter killed by the buffalo becomes a bird in death? We may never know the answers to these questions, but the little details are there to tickle our brains.
Another crucial insight into the extreme age of the stork belief brings us once more to a Germanic belief. In Germany’s earliest history, both storks and swallows were the heralds of the Goddess Hulda (or Frau Holle) and were considered as heralds of spring. Hulda is widely considered as a mother goddess that predates the emergence of the Germanic people. It was once a major deity of Neolithic Europe. Also, the neighboring ancient Prussians considered storks as envoys from one of their major deities: Potrimpus.

Nevertheless, some scholars argue that the myths pertaining to the stork are purely Indo-European, even though (as we stated) so much evidence points to a much, much older origin. But could it have been one of the few shared beliefs between the Proto Europeans and the migrating newcomers?
Even though the main aspect of this belief is clearly reincarnation and migration of souls, some scholars ascribe to it the agricultural aspect. While it is agreed by all that the reverence of the white stork has its origins in the Stone Age, it could be said that it received a new and expanded character with the arrival of Indo-Europeans and all the new technologies they brought.
It is said that white storks in Indo-European belief are connected to spring and the beginning of the agricultural season. Thus, they are seen as bringers of warmth and good weather, and the success of crops and the new life of the crops. Even so, the gist of the belief remains the same: new life and maintaining of the cycle of life upon the wings of a majestic white stork.

The Storks That Came To Our Family And Then . . .

On an ordinary day in spring, on the boggy fields behind my home, four magnificent white storks landed. It was a rare occurrence to see them there and not high overhead in flight. I was certain that they had never landed in my yard before that day, and so the whole family observed them with interest and good spirits: such a sight they were!
But not long after, we were graced by wonderful news: our family was going to welcome a new member! For someone who loves to preserve the ancient beliefs of our ancestors, this sure came as a wonderful coincidence (?) and a lovely surprise to me. For after all, who can answer the many mysteries of our world with certainty?
https://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-l ... rk-0014587
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White and Black Stork Legends, Myths and Omens (continuation)


How Stork Legends, Myths and Omens Set Their Place in History
MAURA ANDREONI
UPDATED 23 MAY, 2020


Contrary to what is happening today, humans of the past had close relationships to nature and wild animals. These bonds did not concern only utilitarian aspects, but also involved the sphere of the imaginary and myth. This article is a short overview of the relationship the ancient Mediterranean civilizations had with the stork, an animal which has always fascinated humans and stimulated man's creative imagination and curiosity. Perhaps this is thanks to the sharing of the same open environments - often agricultural - and to the use of anthropogenic structures for the placement of their bulky nests. It is little wonder that there are so many ancient stork legends.

Representations of Storks in Ancient Art

The stork has always been such a familiar presence for humans that it gave rise to one of the most ancient examples of linguistic zoomorphism: Isidore of Seville (6th cent. AD) mentions a ciconia to indicate an instrument used by Roman and Hispanic farmers to draw water. It consisted of an upright frame on which a long pole or branch is suspended at a distance of about one-fifth of its length from one end. People would hang a bucket, skin bag, or coated reed basket at the long end of the pole. It was a simple but very ingenious irrigation tool, already in use in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia from at least the second millennium BC, where it was known as a shadoof. The silhouette of this machine very much resembles a stork eating or drinking from ponds.
Ancient representations on sacred buildings dating back to the early Neolithic culture of the Near East, such as in Göbekli Tepe in southern Anatolia(11,500 years ago), Egyptian papyrus and artifacts, Roman wall paintings, Byzantine mosaics, and medieval friezes often depict storks , sometimes putting so much care in rendering the details to make them absolutely identifiable, even if, especially in the Middle Ages, they are often confused with cranes or ibis.
In Avenche in Switzerland (the ancient Aventicum), in the major temple complex dedicated to the genius of Helvetia-Roman Switzerland, one column stands as the "cigognier" because, since time immemorial, it has been a nesting place for storks. The nest appeared for the first time in an engraving of M. Merian the Elder, dating back to 1642, and since then it has been constantly frequented by the birds, only being removed in 1978 during the restoration of the archaeological site. By the way: Merian’s coat of arms and publisher seal was a stork with the motto " Pietas contenta lucratur ".
Storks have been regarded as very important symbols over the ages: Egyptians originally represented the divine spiritual Ba, one of the parts of the human soul, with the saddle-billed stork ( Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis ). Aelian confirms this habit, highlighting that the stork's breast, if seen from the front, vaguely resembles a heart, intended as a soul.

Ancient Roman References to the Stork

The evidence on the presence and distribution of storks in Italy during Roman times shines both through naturalistic treatises, such as Pliny's " Naturalis historia ", and from works of another nature. Juvenal, for example, (1st/2nd century AD) records of a white stork nest built on the roof of the Temple of Concordia in Rome around the year 100.
In some cases, references to the species provide vague information on its presence. In others they allow the identification of the nesting sites in well-defined historical periods and hints at stork legends. In a work of 37 BC, for example, Virgil suggests to "plant vines in the period in which the stork, enemy of snakes, arrives".
However, there is no explicit indication of their nesting place and it is not possible to know if the author refers to a part of Italy in particular. What is sure is that, depending on when and where information is written, storks are reported either as nuncios of spring (as seen in Virgil, but also in Petronius), or as carriers of winter (in Pliny, Hesiod, or Aristophanes).

Pliny, who could have observed the storks in their autumn migration, describes their migration, refers to places where there were no storks at all, and tells us that they were also kept domestically. Some storks were probably bred and raised in places called vivaria, which is where the ancient Romans kept wild animals they planned to use for their entertainment.

Pliny's observations about stork migrations are correct, except for the fact that he says they occur at night; on the contrary, storks fly during the day because, like all the soaring birds, they make use of rising columns of warm air called "thermals” – which are available only in the hot daytime.
Being a generally silent animal, some ancients created legends that storks didn’t have tongues. Indeed, the only vocal sound adult birds generate is a weak, barely audible hiss, but, in a variety of social interactions, they can also produce a noisy bill-clatter by rapidly opening and closing the beak. Young birds can also generate harsh hisses, various cheeping sounds, and a cat-like mew when begging for food. The Romans considered this clattering as a sign of derision and symbolized it by joining all the fingers of the hand in the form of a stork beak.

Ancient sources give other curious legends about storks. For example, according to Aristotle, when injured in a fight, storks (and other birds) heal their wounds with origanum. This is perhaps the reason why the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Paris has three silver storks as its emblem, each with a sprig of origanum in its beak.

Pliny also writes that a stork's stomach was believed to be a powerful remedy against all poisons (especially with the addition of sheep's milk) and that eating stork chicks was considered a good remedy against conjunctivitis. Aelian says that storks are enemies of bats and seagulls and Juvenal reports about their food: snakes and lizards found in the deserted countryside.

Moreover, Horace suggests that in his time (1st century BC) Romans ate neither turbot nor storks. But when Sempronius Rufus, a political candidate for the trial court, began to judge them as an exquisite taste, storks started to be hunted for food.
That taste did not last long, since things had changed by Pliny’s time, when storks were no longer eaten and were replaced by cranes. Sempronius’ political end we know from a scholar of Horace: rejected by the magistrate's court, he was dedicated an epigram that joked about his failure, considered as the revenge of the popolus ciconiarum - the stork people.

Stork Omens and Enemies

Artemidorus Daldianus was a professional diviner in the 2nd century AD. He attributed the dreamlike image of a stork to a negative omen suggesting bad weather, drought, and imminent attacks by enemies and pirates.
Speaking of assaults: Procopius of Caesarea (6th century AD), in his "Vandal Wars", informs that even Attila was helped by a stork during the Sack of Aquileia in 452. Legend tells that just as he was about to retire, a white stork flew from a tower of the walls and left the city with the nestlings on its back. At that sight, convinced that the stork was leaving presaging the destruction of its nest, the superstitious Attila ordered his army to stay and attack the part of the walls left by the stork, which collapsed. Attila was thus able to take possession of the city.

Stork legends depicting them as the deadly enemies of snakes are seen in many stories. Many authors recall how these birds were highly regarded in Thessaly, for example, where killing a stork was equated to murder.
Greek mythology also includes a story about Antigone. She was the daughter of the Trojan king Laomedon and the sister of King Priam. In the myth, Antigone said she had hair that was more beautiful than the goddess Hera’s. This incited Hera to turn the girl’s hair into snakes, but another god took pity on Antigone and then turned her into a stork. This myth was an explanation why storks preyed on snakes.

At the advent of Christianity, these ancient beliefs helped to build the symbology of the stork in the Christianity revelation, when the serpent represented the devil and the stork took over the role of ophiomachos, attacking the snakes in the fight against him. Though the positive Christian/New Testament interpretation of the stork was not present in the Old Testament: Leviticus and Deuteronomy include storks among the birds whose feeding was forbidden and in general in the Bible (especially reading Zechariah) storks do not seem to have such positive values.

Storks were Also Positive Symbols

Back to positive symbology: for Egyptians, as well as for Greeks and Romans, storks also represented filial piety, as they believed that storks demonstrated family loyalty by returning to the same nest every year and caring of their parents in old age. That was what Petronius described as pietaticultrix, "cultivator of pietas."
In Rome there was even a law, the lex ciconiaria or alimentaria, or antipelargia, which referred to a previous Greek law dating back to Solon (7th/6th century BC), which required sons and daughters to assist their elderly parents. The stork’s reputation for caring for elderly parents continued into Christianity and the animal was cited as an exemplum in an exhortation to children made by Basil of Caesarea (4th century AD).

More generally, the stork was seen as symbol of pietas, of natural gratitude (άντιπελαργεῖν, antipelargia = to do like the stork = meant to return a benefit) and of fidelitas, because it was thought that storks punished infidelity and could not bear marital betrayal among humans. This belief remained in the collective imagination. Centuries later, in "The Parliament of the Birds", the English poet Geoffrey Chaucer still defined the stork as the "avenger of adultery".

The image of a stork as fidelitas was also used by various Roman legions (such as Legio III Italica) and some important families, such as the gens Cecilia , with politically propagandistic purposes.
And storks are also the protagonists of some of the oldest fairy tales in history. For example, they feature in the tales of the Greek Aesop (6th century BC), later taken up by the Roman Phaedrus, in the 1st century BC.

More Stork Legends - Carrying Children and Naming Flowers

Remaining in the world of children, we cannot fail to remember the legend of storks being responsible for bringing babies to new parents. Although this stork legend may be an ancient one stemming from Greece or Egypt (there is some confusion whether the creatures in those myths were storks or cranes or herons), it became popular to many people when Hans Christian Andersen wrote the story called ‘ The Storks ’ in the 19th-century. In this fairy tale , families have sleeping babies brought to them by storks who pick up the young ones at ponds or lakes.

From children to flowers: the Greek term "pelargos", πελαργός, (=stork), gave its name to the scientific name of the Pelargonium, commonly called geranium, due to the similarity of the seed pod with the beak of this bird.

And contrary to what Artemidorus thought centuries before, let’s finish with a positive take on storks: in Lenormand tarot cards, the card number XVII (17), The Stork, is considered a positive card that indicates significant changes, spiritual and existential renewals, loving reconciliations, or pleasant encounters with people from far away or from the past.

What a beautiful wish! So, in this horrible time of coronavirus (this article was written in Italy in March, 2020), good stork wishes are being sent to you all!
https://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-l ... ds-0013757
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White and Black Stork Legends, Myths and Omens (continuation)

Birds In Culture | Storks And The Delivery Of Babies
Bird Spot

“Where do babies come from?”

A perfectly innocent question that can trigger extreme feelings of awkwardness in even the most open-minded parents. And although it’s not recommended, some parents, if they feel that their child is not ready for the birds and bees talk, will explain that making babies involves no human involvement at all and that they are simply delivered by storks.

The image of a stork carrying a baby in a cloth bundle dangling from its beak is so ubiquitous that we rarely question why it’s found on everything from cards and newborns’ gifts to baby care and nappies.

An ancient myth

Storks have been associated with babies for centuries. Many accounts trace the legend back to ancient Greek mythology and Hera, the wife of Zeus, and goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth, who became jealous of the mortal Pygmy queen, Gerena.

Gerena who was described as a ‘flawless beauty’ was rumoured to be having an affair with Zeus. She was one of many of his lovers that Hera took revenge upon.

The scorned Hera turned Gerena into a stork and commanded her to fly away, but Gerena did not want to leave her newborn baby, who may have been fathered by Zeus. She wrapped the baby in a blanket, picked him up in her beak, and carried him off while being chased by members of her own tribe.

Similarly, in Egyptian mythology storks are associated with birth. Bennu, an ancient Egyptian deity, was said to represent a stork, who flew over the waters of Nun, that existed before creation, before landing on a rock and issuing a cry, which determined what was to be included in the unfolding world.

However, more recent research has suggested that Gerena was actually transformed into a crane, and archaeological evidence claims that a large species of now extinct heron that lived on the Arabian Peninsula is more likely to have been the inspiration for Bennu.

Another species of bird that may have been confused with the stork, and which gave rise to the idea that storks are connected with bringers of life, is the pelican. In Catholicism a mother pelican feeding her chicks is deeply symbolic.

The story goes that a brood of young pelican chicks become increasingly violent towards their mother who has selflessly cared for them. They attempt to peck out her eyes and mutilate her and in anger she retaliates killing her young with her sharp beak. After 3 days she regrets what she has done and pierces her own breast drawing blood. As the blood drips on her chicks they return to life and she dies, having made the ultimate sacrifice for her children.

This representation of a pelican piercing her breast to save her young is known as the ‘Pelican in her Piety’ and can be found in illuminations, jewels, stained glass windows, and paintings, and is even referred to by Shakespeare.
To his good friends thus wide I’ll ope my arms
And, like the kind life-rend’ring pelican,
Repast them with my blood.

Hamlet 4.5.167-169

One theory that connects pelicans and storks further has been put forward by Paul Quinn, a professor of English literature at the University of Chichester. He has suggested that people who saw pelicans in flight may have thought they were storks carrying something in their beaks, and because of the existing association with new life they deduced that they were carrying babies.

It is possible that the migratory habits of storks also contributed to the spread of the myth. In Pagan times it was traditional for couples to get married on the Summer Solstice, a day that represents the sun, fertility, and prosperity.

Coincidentally storks would begin their annual migration to their wintering grounds in Africa at around the same time, before returning to northern Europe nine months later for breeding season, just as all the newlyweds were giving birth to their honeymoon babies.

Folklore & fairy tales

By the Medieval era, folklore surrounding storks delivering babies was widespread across northern Europe, particular in Germany. The souls of unborn children were said to live in caves, marshes and ponds, in the form of Adeborsteine or ‘stork-stones’. The storks would bring them back to households to their expectant parents and either hand them over to the mother or drop them down the chimney; naughty children would be carried in their beaks, while good children would ride in a basket on their backs.

To encourage storks to bring a newborn bundle of joy, children who wanted a baby brother or sister would sing to the storks, or place sweets for the stork on the windowsill.

In the 19th century the story was popularised by Hans Christian Andersen in a gruesome tale in which four young storks are taunted by a group of small boys. One boy called Peter tries to stop them but they continue to sing songs about hanging, burning, cooking, and drowning the storks.
“Stork, stork, fly away,
Stand not on one leg, I pray,
See your wife is in her nest,
With her little ones at rest.
They will hang one,
And fry another;
They will shoot a third,
And roast his brother.

As the storks grow older they wish to exact their revenge on the boys and after being persuaded by their mother not to peck the boys’ eyes out they fly to the pool where the unborn babies lie. All of the boys who did not sing the songs are rewarded with a new brother or sister, while the boy who led the singing has a dead baby delivered to his house. As a special reward, Peter is given both a brother and a sister and the mother stork tells her sons that from now on they will all be called Peter.

By the 1930s the story of the stork delivering babies had overtaken the traditional explanation of them being born under the gooseberry bush, ‘gooseberry bush’ being 19th century slang for female pubic hair.

The theory of the stork

Most people take for granted that human babies are produced through sexual reproduction, but over the years some scientists have put forward an alternative theory as a way of proving that correlation does not imply causation; the theory of the stork.

It’s not clear who first put proposed the idea. There are claims that George Udny Yule (18 February 1871 – 26 June 1951), an English statistician and author of the influential textbook Introduction to the Theory of Statistics, noted that in Alsace villages the number of new born babies correlated with the number of nesting storks.

He apparently wanted to show that although one could erroneously conclude that storks do actually deliver babies, the answer is much more simple. Larger villages have more houses and therefore more roofs on which storks can build nests. Larger villages also house more families who produce more babies, so in this case the confounding factor is the size of the village.

However, there is little evidence that this is anything but an apocryphal story, first mentioned by Jerzy Neyman ( (April 16, 1894 – August 5, 1981), a Polish mathematician, in a research paper he wrote in 1952.

In the year 2000, Professor Robert Matthews, a British physicist and popular science writer, conducted a statistical analysis between birth rates and stork populations across Europe whilst at Aston University.

The paper was called Storks Deliver Babies (p = 0.008) where p stands for the p-value. In statistics the p-value is s the probability of obtaining test results at least as extreme as the results actually observed. The lower the p-value the stronger the evidence with p values of less than 0.05 statistically significant.
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... ies_p_0008

Another famous example was published in 2008. In New evidence for the Theory of the Stork, Dr Thomas Höfer from the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, showed a correlation between the decrease in the stork population in the German state of Lower Saxony in the 1970s and 80s with a decrease in the number of baby deliveries, as well as a significant correlation between an increase in the stork population in Berlin and an increase in out-of-hospital deliveries.
https://web.stanford.edu/class/hrp259/2 ... storke.pdf

Despite the rather humorous nature of the study, the researchers were trying to make a serious point and preface the paper with a disclaimer.

“This article is not intended to disprove the value of serious epidemiological investigations. It is an example of how studies based on popular belief and unsubstantiated theory, seconded by low quality references and supported by coincidental statistical association could lead to apparent scientific endorsement.” :D

There is therefore absolutely no clear scientific evidence that storks do deliver babies. As a story it was particularly useful for prudish Victorian parents as a way of explaining the birds and the bees to their children, who turned it into the widespread phenomenon it is today.

https://www.birdspot.co.uk/culture/stor ... -of-babies
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White and Black Stork Legends, Myths and Omens (continuation)

BLACK STORKS

Die Schwalben Odins
(The Swallows of Odin)
Bernd Kamphuis
Translated:
The ancient Germanic tribes revered and mystified them as Odin's swallows.
But after a long period of veneration, the image of the black stork changed in the Middle Ages: it became the dark adversary of the white stork, the harbinger of disaster, the messenger of plague and war. For a long time, it was hunted and coveted as rare prey.
With the emerging idea of nature conservation in the enlightened age, populations increased slightly. But the species is still rare today, even if it is not acutely threatened.
Due to its secretive way of life, the black stork remains hidden from most glances. ...
https://djz.de/wp-content/uploads/sites ... g_1007.pdf


Adebar im schwarzen Rock
Der heimliche Vetter des Weißstorchs

(Adebar in a black skirt - The secret cousin of the white stork)
NABU Mecklenburg Vorpommern
Translated:
Everyone knows the stork, the white stork. As is well known, he delivers babies. Here we will report on another remarkable representative of the stork family: the black stork.
In pre-Christian times, the Germanic tribes regarded the black stork as one of Odin's companions. Hence its popular Swedish name Odensvala - "Swallow of Odin".
From the Middle Ages until modern times, the black stork was regarded as the antagonist of the white stork, which had a positive connotation. It was seen as a herald of misfortune, disease and war. This bad reputation in mythology does not do justice to the black stork. Rather, it is a fascinating species that needs to be protected. ...
https://mecklenburg-vorpommern.nabu.de/ ... 12253.html


Schwarzstorch – Mythos wieder unseren Wäldern
(Black stork - a myth back in our forests)
Wald & Wild, Austria 2004
Translated:
The Black Stork's reclusive lifestyle in secluded forest environments has made it a "mythical bird" (JANSSEN G. et al. 2003).
Unnoticed by the general public, the Black Stork has expanded its territories in the Austrian forests and has reached a considerable breeding population of 120 to 130 pairs in Austria (BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL 2000).
REVERED AND PERSECUTED
Cultural historians assume that in the Germanic as well as in the Greek/Roman world of gods the black stork served as a substitute for the ibis, a bird of the gods known from Egyptian mythology. It was therefore worshipped as a companion of Hermes/Mercury or Odin/Wodan or as their metamorphosis. For example, it is said to have reported to the North Germanic Odin (West Germanic Wodan) everything that happened in his kingdom. It is striking, for example, that in southern Sweden and Denmark, Odin cult sites coincide remarkably well with the distribution area of the black stork. It is assumed that this worship protected him from persecution. Incidentally, it is assumed that it also experienced a similar veneration in the southern Germanic region (Bavarian-Austrian dialect area) before Christianisation.
The black colour of its back and wing coverts probably made the black stork increasingly the "evil" counterpart of the white stork, which had a positive connotation, in the Middle Ages. In the Ukraine, it is still associated with the power of evil in popular belief. A Polish folk proverb says: "God and the devil created the stork. God gave it white wings, the devil gave it black". In fact, the motives for the persecution were probably less idealistic than material, as the white stork was also persecuted in a similar way. Until the 19th century, Prussian kings paid rewards for "a pair of stork's feet" because of the damage to hunting and fishing grounds.
Today, ornithologists discuss whether this centuries-long persecution is responsible for the Black Stork's particular shyness towards humans. This thesis is linked to the finding that a decreasing persecution has also reduced the shyness, and that one can now speak of an "ecological conversion", and a "greater tolerance or adaptation" to humans can be observed.
https://www.zt-weissbacher.at/wp-conten ... 3/0410.pdf


Toonela lind. Must-toonekurg
Film põlislaante salapärasest asukast must-toonekurest. Autor Rein Maran.
https://www.looduskalender.ee/n/node/2550
The bird of the underworld. Black Stork
A film about a mysterious inhabitant of the local landscape, the black stork.
Author Rein Maran.
(toonela = the realm of the dead or the Underworld)
“The bird of the underworld was in fact the black stork, known in Estonian regions long before its white cousin. The appearance of a black stork in the deep forests was seen in some areas as an omen of death.” (Thank you, Heloise!)

You can watch the film here:
https://arhiiv.err.ee/guid/201005070704 ... 0D0F006642
Or here:
https://jupiter.err.ee/1608169909/toone ... -toonekurg



Will be continued... if I find more information :D

Does anyone know of any other sources? :help:
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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.
The 6th international Black Stork congress
hosted by the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council (France 2012)

Ornithos Hors-série 1 - 2016

https://cigogne-noire.fr/IMG/pdf/hs_orn ... _opt-2.pdf


Part 1. Biologie - Éthologie / Biology - Ethology

Page 6
Éléments comportementaux de la Cigogne noire durant la nidi cation :
résultats du suivi par caméra en Hongrie
Behavioural elements of the Black Stork during nesting:
results of camera observation in Hungary

Béla KALOCSA et Enikö Anna TAMAS
Abstract
In 2005, a camera was used to record the events at a Black Stork’s nest in Hungary. Of the 8 years of watching, the pair’s activties were recorded in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2012.
The nest remained unoccupied from 2008 to 2010. Between 2005 and 2007 the nest was occupied but breeding attempts failed. In 2011 there was activity at the nest but due to technical problems the camera wasn’t used to record the nesting attempt. In 2012, the nesting activty was recorded but breeding once again failed.
Data on arrival at the nest and its reconstruction, the number of Black Storks that visited or used the nest during the four years of recording, copulation behaviour, laying dates and clutch size, the interval between laying and hatching, the causes of failure and adult behaviour throughout was all analysed. This shows that the nest is normally visited and reconstructed by more than two birds. In certain cases, several pairs copulated at the same nest. Even during the incubation period, another pair of Black Storks may be seen at the nest.
The camera records have allowed for further insight into the behaviour of Black Storks at the nest.

Page 12
Utilisation de pièges-caméras pour l’étude de la Cigogne noire :
avantages, inconvénients et premiers résultats
Use of trail-cameras in studies of Black Stork behavior and ecology:
gains, limitations and the first essential results

Māris STRAZDS & Jānis ĶUZE
Abstract
We installed a trail-camera next to three Black Storks nest in Latvia in 2011. Two of these nests were successful, one was abandoned after the last trail-camera change and the remaining egg was eaten by a pine marten.
In total we collected information about all activities in these nests during both day and night for 56 days and 10 hours. The individual uninterrupted periods of data collection varied between 3,29 days (three days and six hours) and 21,82 days (21 days, 19 hours) dependant of camera settings, weather (air temperature) and stork activities at the nest.
Obtained data contains new information about essential aspects of Black Stork ecology and behavior such as share of parental investment during nest building, incubation and chick guarding, feeding frequency, timing, longevity and frequency of mating, egg-laying and hatching time, fights of competing adults for the nest and change of partners.
We discuss also problems related to trail-cameras use — restricted life of batteries, disturbance during change of batteries and problems with camera installation itself (location of camera in relation to the nest).

Page 14
Éléments sur les possibilités de sexage de la Cigogne noire à partir de mesures morphologiques
About possibilities of the sexing of Black Storks using morphological measurements
Māris STRAZDS, Ülo VÄLI & Annika KOnOVALOV
Abstract
The sex of all juvenile Black Storks ringed in Latvia in 2008–2011 (N=324) was identified by means of DNA sexing. We also measured, weighed and pho- tographed all birds during ringing-marking. We analyzed the available data to find out whether sex of juvenile storks can be detected by measurements alone. Preliminary analysis shows that there are no exclusive features that enable safe sex identification of all individuals. Sex identification of juveniles during their first weeks of life by morphometric data is almost impossible. Sexing of most birds from a certain age is possible however. The essential measurements to be used for this purpose are beak measurements, growth rate of primaries (to determine age of juveniles), overall development of plumage and weight.

Page 17
Étude du génome des Cigognes noires
Fieldwork in Black Stork genome
Katrin KALDMA & Ülo VÄLI
Abstract
We have initiated a large-scale molecular analysis of Black Stork populations. The idea of the project is to ascertain the genetic diversity and structure of bird groups covering a wide range of countries and regions both historically and presently.
With the cooperation of our colleagues we are able to put together representative collections of Eurasian contemporary DNA samples and museum access grants has made possible a sample collection from historical specimens. This corpus of data allows us to put forward several questions:
• does the segmentation of human population (geographical, political borders) bear any significance to the genetics of the Black Stork?
• do birds from different parts of the world have a distinguishable genetic structure or do they come from a common genetic pool?
• is genetic change occuring currently, or has the situation been stable for centuries?
• can we use mitochondrial DNA to trace back to the mitochondrial origin of Black Storks?

Collation of microsatellite markers, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and mitochondrial DNA sequences should reveal the overall “genetic health” of populations and define possible subpopulations. The temporal perspective could elucidate the picture or (perhaps) vice versa. Discussions about habitation fragmentation / population fragmentation, bottlenecks and borderland etfects are possible. Strengths and shortcomings of the DNA method will also be covered.

Page 19
Possibilité d’identifcation individuelle de la Cigogne noire d’après les taches du cercle périoculaire
Possibility of identifying individual Black Storks from the spots on their periocular circle
Juan Pablo Resino RUBIO
Results (translated)
By examining photos, we believe that it should be possible to monitor the pattern of the periocular circle spots of individual BS observed in the study area. In fact, the pattern does not reappear exactly the same year after year. In addition, the part of it in contact with the feathered perimeter may be obscured due to variation in the feathering as a result of moulting, wear and tear, etc. But we believe that it should be possible to monitor the pattern over time. Having two photos of the periocular circle and the possibility of sex identification offered by the curvature of the bill provides three pieces of data for each individual that can be added together to evaluate the variability of the spots at each annual appearance of the birds.
If the hypothesis of the recognition of the birds by the spots in their periocular circle proves to be correct, only two individuals have been observed with regularity during all these years in the feeding area considered, individuals which apparently correspond to a male and a female by the curvature of the bill and which could well be the resident pair of the sector considered. We obtained photographs of the individual assumed to be the female during the favourable months (July-September) only for the years 2008 and 2009. However, for the presumed male, it was possible to follow up on the area (in 2005): it seemed to us that the pattern found on the only periocular circle (left) photographed with sufficient detail corresponds in pattern and position to that of the male observed from 2008 to 2011.
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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Anne7
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The 6th international Black Stork congress
hosted by the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council (France)
(continuation)
Ornithos Hors-série 1 - 2016

https://cigogne-noire.fr/IMG/pdf/hs_orn ... _opt-2.pdf


Part 2. État des populations / Population status

Page 22
Programme international de baguage couleur des Cigognes noires :
état des lieux, évolution, problèmes et améliorations possibles
International Black Stork colour ringing programme:
status, progress, problems and possible solutions, recommendations for improvement of a consistent system

Enikő Anna TAMAS & Béla KALOCSA
Abstract
25 different countries participate in the international Black Stork colour ringing program; coordinated prior to 2001 by Juan J. FERRERO, from 2001 to 2010 by Willem VAN DEN BOSSCHE, and since 2011 by Enikö Anna TAMAS.
Each Black Stork carries an individual plastic colour ring with 3 or 4 characters and a standard metal ring, both placed on the tibia. Colour-ring coding allows to identify: country where ringed (first, or first and second characters) and the individual (all three or four characters).
In the last few years the international database has proved to be very outdated and coordination is rather weak due to problems of communication and non-reporting. Many unidentifiable birds have recently been seen, this due to unreported individual ringing programs, the ringers not consulting with co-ordinators or national ringing authorities for certified coding. This has resulted in the same code being used twice, sometimes even three times.
The species has been intensively ringed in central Europe, particularly in the Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary. That is why, based on the experience with database management, recovery recording system and the reporting protocol used in Hungary, we would like to make recommendations to improve of consistency and transparency in the ringing of this species. This includes the development of an online recovery reporting tool to facilitate identification and speed up the data management process.

Page 26
Baguage couleur de Cigognes noires en Lettonie (1990-2011) :
impacts de la méthode et quelques résultats
Black Stork colour ringing in Latvia (1990–2011):
impact of process and some results

Māris STRAZDS, Jānis ĶUZE, Helmuts HOFMANIS & Valters PRANKS
Abstract
We have ringed 1027 juvenile Black Storks in Latvia since 1990. During ring-marking activities nearly all juveniles (1014, or 98.7%) were photographed (the face and body in most cases) and measured (the length and depth of the beak and the length of the longest primary). We estimated the age of juveniles on the basis of these measurements and of the overall development of their plumage. Around 10% of the ringed birds were later recorded, alive or dead, by the end of 2011. In this presentation we analyze how juvenile age and condition at the time of ringing affect recovery rate. Also the role of their nest (parent quality) is discussed.

Page 29
Baguage des Cigognes noires en France Premier bilan : 1995 à 2011
The ringing of Black Storks in France First results: 1995 to 2011
Luc STRENNA, Frédéric CHAPALAIN & Paul BROSSAULT
Abstract
Between 1995 and 2011 more than 500 pulli and fledged Black Storks were ringed, mainly in North-eastern France, with an important control rate (19 %). There was a high mean number of young per brood (3.3). Survival will be analysed in the future, in particular according to sex.

Page 36
La Cigogne noire en République tchèque : état de la population et conservation
The Black Stork in the Czech Republic: present status and conservation
Frantisek POJER & Eva VO JTECHOVSKA
The Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) has been repopulating the Czech Republic ́s territory since the 1940s: before that, only a few pairs had been breeding in floodplain forests in South Moravia, close to the Austrian and Slovak borders. Black Storks came from northeast: in the late 1940s, their breeding was confirmed in North and Central Moravia, i.e. in northeastern part of the country. In 1952, the first nest was found also in northeastern Bohemia (the Krkonoše/Giant Mts.). Nevertheless, only ten years later, the species nested at more sites, particularly in mountains along the borders and well-preserved natural forests within nature reserves. In the Czech Republic, the Black Stork ́s population was estimated at 50 breeding pairs in 1966, while in 1973-1977 it reached just 140 pairs. In the 1980s, 200-300 pairs occurred in the country. By 1994, the numbers increased to 330 pairs and 300-400 pairs were estimated to breed there in 2001-2003. All the suitable forest areas have been occupied by Black Storks and the carrying capacity has been probably reached within the country. Therefore, nests outside continuous forests growths, e.g. in riparian growths or alleys in arable land, have been found. In the past ten years, the Black Stork ́s population seems to be stable. ...

Page 38
Statut de population et de conservation de la Cigogne noire en Hongrie
Population and conservation status of the Black Stork in Hungary
Béla KALOCSA et Enikő Anna TAMAS
... Summarizing the available population data, the Black Stork population, which was reported to seriously decline all over central- and western-Europe in the first half of the 20th century as the White Stork (JANSSEN & al., 2004), seems to be increasing in Hungary in the last few decades. However, the increase in volunteer activity cannot be exactly accounted for, thus the net growth in population cannot be assessed reliably fiable (KALOCSA & TAMAS, 2004c ; KALOCSA & TAMAS, 2005 ; KALOCSA & TAMAS, 2007 ; KALOCSA & TAMAS, 2009b ; KALOCSA & TA- MAS, 2010).
The current Hungarian population of the Black Stork represents ~2 % of the World population of the species and ~5 % of the European one. From the maps it can be clearly seen that the population is concentrated along the three major rivers (Danube, Tisza and Drava), and densest is in the southern part of the Danube valley. The Black Stork is strictly protected by law in Hungary, and considered a rare but regular breeder.

Page 42
La Cigogne noire au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
The Black Stork in Luxembourg
Patric LORGE
Abstract
The Black Stork bred for the first time in Luxembourg in 1993. The species was recorded there only a few times before 1920, there were no records between 1920 and 1960. As from 1966 the number of records started to increase and the first summering birds were recorded in 1985. The breeding population is now considered to be between 10 and 12 pairs. Up to 2012, the species bred at least 66 times and more than 200 Black Storks were colour-ringed within the framework of the “Cigognes sans frontières” programme.

Page 44
Relecture des Cigognes noires baguées en France : bilan 1995-2011
Controls of Black Storks ringed in France: summary 1995-2011
Luc STRENNA, Frédéric CHAPALAIN, Paul BROSSAULT & Nicolas GENDRE
Abstract
502 Black Storks were ringed in France between 1995 and 2011: 83% of these chicks (control rate: 15%), 16% fledged birds caught in cage-traps (control rate: 39%). 95 individuals have been controlled, with a total of 490 re-sightings. The average control period is of 3 years, with a maximum of 10 years. The phenology of controls is typical of the species.
Juveniles sometimes make erratic movements towards the north and aren’t apparently philopatric. Some sub-adults show erratic movements but breeding birds show strong fidelity to their breeding sites.
Ringing controls confirm the crucial importance, for the species’ conservation, of stop-over sites during migration and feeding sites during breeding, which are beneficial for all age classes.
Their long life span and low population in France necessitates a long term study in order to obtain significant results

Page 57
Cahier des charges baguage des Cigognes noires : technique de grimpe au nid
Specifcations for the ringing of Black Storks: techniques for climbing to the nest
Benoît BOCQUET & Catherine BECK
Abstract
The first Black Stork nest in France has been mentioned in 1973. During the last 30 years, nesting has been reported at least once in 20 departments situated in the north of the country.
In order to acquire knowledge about this species, a ringing programme has been launched in 1995 by the Natural History Museum in Paris. To date, 144 broods have been ringed in France.
At the beginning, ringing was pretty restricted, carried out at only a couple of nests. Since then, the number of ringed birds has increased, with about 20 broods each year. It became necessary to provide a framework to the ringing practice to make it safe and to generalise the appropriate technique. Therefore climbing is forbidden for someone who has not received the required training.
Today the “Black Stork network” has acquired experience and relies on professional climbers specialised in bird tagging. So far, ringing has been realised in nests situated between 7 and 24 metres high.
Instructions are provided to the climber (technique and means), for chick manipulation, for tree respect, and for the confidentiality of the operation. The climber, who is responsible for bird manipulation, has to carry his capture permit.
It is essential to keep in mind that as little disturbance as possible has to be caused to the storks. Safety and rapidity are major rules of ringing operations.
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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Anne7
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The 6th international Black Stork congress
hosted by the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council (France)
(continuation)
Ornithos Hors-série 1 - 2016

https://cigogne-noire.fr/IMG/pdf/hs_orn ... _opt-2.pdf


Part 3. Population française / French population

Page 61
Historique de la population nicheuse de Cigogne noire en France
The history of the breeding population of the Black Stork in France
Pascal DENIS & Paul BROSSAULT
Abstract
There are no references to the Black Stork as a nesting species in France in the scientific literature of the last few centuries. During the 20th century it was observed only as a migrant species until the 60s. The progressive increase in the number of observed migrants and the growth of the Eastern Europe populations indicated that the Black Stork might breed in France.
The first mention of a Black Stork nest in France was one found in the Indre et Loire department in 1973. Thereafter the number of nesting attempts increased slowly and breeding distribution increased. During the last 30 years, nesting has been reported at least once in 20 departments throughout the north of the France.
In 2011, 30 nests were monitored in 10 departments. The Ardennes, close to the Belgium border, is the department with the highest number of recorded breeding attemps with 12 nests that year. However, all nests were not found and it is reasonable to assume that the total French Black Stork breeding population was about 60 pairs in France in 2012.

Page 65
Le programme interrégional Bourgogne - Champagne-Ardenne Cigogne noire 2010-2012
The interregional (Burgundy - Champagne-Ardenne) Black Stork program (2010-2012)
Vincent GODREAU & COLLECTIF
Abstract
The inter-regional Black Stork program 2010-2012 was ini- tiated during exchanges of the Champagne-Ardenne and Burgundy regional councils as early as 2008, this resulting from work carried out by the French O ice national des fo- rêts (ONF) over several previous years.
However, this program carried out between 2010 and 2012 involved two important new points:
• close cooperation between various naturalist groups from the two regions: the « Regroupement des Naturalistes ardennais » (ReNard) for the Ardennes, the Champagne-Ar- denne section of the “Ligue pour la Protection des Oiseaux” for the three other departments, the forêt d'Orient Parc naturel régional for the Aube lakes, the SOBA Nature Nièvre for the Nièvre department and the Côte-d'Or section of the Ligue pour la Protection des Oiseaux (LPO 21),
• important financial investment on the part of the regional partners (the regional councils, the DREAL and FEDER) in order to more quickly work towards taking into account the Black Stork at the regional level.
The main results of this program and presented in this article, they concern a better understanding of the species and of those habitats used on a regional scale. Lastly, those principal points developed concerning communication are illustrated.

Page 71
Cigognes noires en centres de sauvegarde
Black Storks in wildlife rehabilitation centers
Gilles MOYNE
Abstract
Between 1994 and 2011, the French wildlife rehabilitation centers network collected 47 injured Black Storks. Most birds (65%) came from the eastern half of France, the rest mainly from the Atlantic seaboard. Geographic distribution shows a seasonal pattern related to postnuptial migration: 76% of admissions occurred during autumn migration, between August and November. As with the White Stork Ciconia ciconia, most birds were first years (74% of the total).
A quarter of the birds (26%) had collided with overhead electricity cables and this mainly during the autumn migration; they generate heavy traumatic pathologies, or often lethal burns. 8% of birds received had collided with unidentified fixed obstacles (which necessarily include electricity infrastructure). Because of the seriousness of this type of accident the release of received birds is relatively low: 25%.
Another quarter of received birds concerns first-years collected in a weakened state: malnutrition, parasite infestation, nutritional deficiencies, retarded growth or growth defects. Of these, 45% can be rehabilitated and released during the following spring migration.
Willful causes (hunting) represent 8% of the total (4 birds).
For 19% of individuals the cause of injury is not specified or could not be determined.
A total of 14 Black Storks have been released (30% of the total).
In Franche-Comté/Eastern Bourgogne:
During the same period, the Athénas center collected a third of birds (17 individuals). This is mainly due to its location on the migration corridor in the Jura foothills. Collisions of all kinds and electrifications represent 50% of all received birds, although 6% of these causes were indeterminate.
The release rate is 37.5% (6 individuals).
Fledging of 3 young from a brood that fell to the ground using the hacking release method.
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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Post by Anne7 »

.
The 6th international Black Stork congress
hosted by the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council (France)
(continuation)
Ornithos Hors-série 1 - 2016

https://cigogne-noire.fr/IMG/pdf/hs_orn ... _opt-2.pdf


Part 4. Migration - Hivernage / Migration - Wintering

Page 74
Le suivi des oiseaux avec le système satellite ARGOS
Tracking birds using the ARGOS satellite system
Aline DUPLAA
Abstract
Space technologies have been used for several years to track and monitor wildlife mobility (geo-positioning domain like Argos service). CLS has been operating the Argos system for several decades and the system has been continuously evolving with the monitoring of smaller species. New information is now available about very small birds like Hobby falcons’ with the use of a 5 gr PTT. More precise data about migratory patterns, habitat and birds annual cycle is gradually available.
Space technologies are also very valuable tools to observe the Earth, globally and at high resolution, and collect environmental data (Earth Observations domain like Meteo and space oceanography). The combination of both technologies has been successfully used to conduct research on birds and habitat monitoring.

Page 74
Capture de Cigognes noires en Nièvre : bilan de douze années de capture
Trapping Black Storks in Nièvre: twelve years of experience of trapping
A. CHAPALAIN, C. CHAPALAIN, F. CHAPALAIN & D. DUPUY
Abstract
Cage-traps were first used in the Nièvre in 2000 by the ONF (national forestry department). In 2002, SOBA Nature Nièvre took charge of the project and for the last 10 years since then has used one of two cage-traps at the same capture site in conjunction with the ONF. We briefly give the necessary requirements for catching a protected species (ministerial authorisation, site choice, owner authorisation) before presenting the change in the material used over the ten years and obtained results. From the first primitive trap with a door closed manually by pulling on a cord we have passed, with advise from our Estonian partners, to a “corridor” trap with two doors remote-controlled from a distance and the use of a specifically designed clapnet of East-European design. As well as setting up the trap a small hide is placed a distance away with good visibility over the area used by the birds. The area also needs to be regularly baited with young trout. The use of automatic cameras provides precious data on presence at the site when the hide is unmanned. Also, the trapping site needs to be fenced off if the area’s used for grazing. The operation is very time-consuming but provides a lot of information. This has allowed us to fit 8 emitters, to ring adult birds as well at sub-adults and juveniles. Generally speaking, this trapping programme for ringing and fitting emitters to birds has largely contributed to our knowledge of the species through watching the behaviour of adult, sub-adult and juvenile birds on feeding areas. As for the emitters they have directly or indirectly allowed us to find 6 nests and previously unknown feeding sites.

Page 84
Étude de la migration et de l’hivernage des Cigognes noires estoniennes par le suivi satellitaire (voie de l’est)
Migration and wintering based on tracking data of the Estonian Black Stork population
Urmas SELLIS
GPS tracking has become the main method for studying the precise migration of individuals of larger bird species, this is also true for the Black Stork. Though ringing has been used for decades, it gives little data on wintering sites and exact migration routes.
In Estonia we have used transmitters since 2005 during five years, starting with the well known Flying Over Natura 2000 project. Until 2005 the only data about wintering sites of our birds was the observations of Wim VAN DEN BOSSCHE and Carsten ROHDE in the Jordan Valley. The use of new technology enabled to turn a page on migration studies, despite the fact that limited numbers of transmitters are used simultaneously (because of the high cost of equipment and data extraction and difficulties with trapping adult birds).
In all we have 74 migration tracks of 20 different individuals, 30 in spring and 44 in autumn, including 6 autumn migrations of juveniles. Also we have data on 32 separate winterings.
The start of autumn migration is varied among different birds and in different years, probably depending on breeding success. Important stopover sites start to be identified from the data set, but this needs to be improved. Spring migration varies also in timing and length, and in the same individual. All tagged specimens used the eastern migration route and only one (some years two) of them wintered in Jordan Valley. Wintering sites are spread widely across sub-Saharan Africa from Cameroon to Ethiopia, but Black Storks of Estonian origin prefer to winter in Sudan and Ethiopia. Wintering sites of some individuals change over time, mainly they moved southwards during wintering. Non of the six tagged juveniles arrived at their wintering grounds, they died before arriving.
Scientific analyses of the tracking data hasn’t yet been done, but this may be undertaken by students. This autumn, 2012, we can still follow three Black Storks; since 2009 we haven’t put any more transmitters on this species.

Page 86
Relectures en France des Cigognes noires baguées à l’étranger (1973-2011)
Control of foreign ringed Black Storks in France: results (1973 to 2011)
Luc STRENNA, Frédéric CHAPALAIN & Paul BROSSAULT
Abstract
More than 10 000 Black Storks have been ringed in Europe over the last 25 years. Between 1973 and 2011, 126 foreign- ringed birds have been controlled in France, giving 489 records. An analysis of these controls shows there to be high site fidelity (both sites and time) at both stop-over and wintering sites, that sub-adults are erratic and the absence of migration as a family. Only one bird appears to have taken the eastern flyway. The protection of both feeding and stop-over sites in France is highly important at the European level.

Page 93
Stationnements postnuptiaux de la Cigogne noire sur les grands lacs de Champagne (France)
Stop-over sites of post-nuptial migrating Black Storks at the Champagne great lakes (France)
Stéphane GAILLARD, Thierry TOURNEBIZE, Anne-Sophie GADOT, Claire BOTTINI
Abstract
Three large reservoir lakes were constructed in the Champagne-Ardenne region between 1966 and 1991: Lac d’Orient in 1966, Lac du Der in 1974 and Lac du Temple and Lac Amance in 1990. Their construction was part of the hydraulic development program of the Seine bassin to control flooding and guarantee water supplies for the city of Paris. These great lakes, with fluctuating water levels, have over time become major ornithological sites of importance internationally (RAMSAR site «Etangs de Champagne Humide»), in Europe (Special Area of Protection) and in France (National no-hunting Reserve, and forêt d’Orient Parc naturel régional and National nature reserve).
Since 1974, Black Storks have stayed at the Champagne lakes, during their post-nuptial migration, between July and November. The annual fall in the water level at this time provides easily available prey (frogs, fish...)
Since 2001, a count has been made at the «Forêt d’Orient» lakes during this period and simultaneously at the Der lake since 2008.
Each week, a group of observers (PNRFO, ONF, LPO, ONCFS...), distributed throughout the sites, count black storks and identify ringed birds. After more than 10 years counting, an estimated minimum of 100 to 130 birds stay at the lakes involved.
The maximum weekly number observed at the Forêt d’Orient lakes is 47 birds in 2006 and 31 for the Der lake in 2010. A maximum of 50 ringed birds have been identified at the Champagne great lakes including 41 at the forêt d’Orient. These birds are mainly from Belgium and the Czech Republic, but also from Poland, Germany and other European countries...
Thus, the large lakes in the Champagne region are an important staging site for Black Storks in autumn and thus of conservation importance for this species.

Page 99
La migration postnuptiale de la Cigogne noire dans les Pyrénées : phénologie et effectifs
The autumn migration of the Black Stork in the Pyrenees: timing and numbers
Ondine FILIPPI-CODACCIONI, Jean-Paul URCUN & Frédéric JIGUET
Abstract
With up to a thousand Black Storks flying over the Organbidexka pass and more than six hundred over the Lindux pass, the migration watch sites in Western Pyrenees represent about 60% of the migratory flow of the species on the western flyway for populations coming from Western Europe and crossing the Pyrenees. Given this importance, a study on the migration phenology of this species, as well as on its evolution, and on the annual counts over more than 30 years of monitoring, seemed relevant. We took advantage of this by testing two methods of population index computation as well as its trend. While the migration flow lasts from July 5th to November 8th at Organbidexka — the only site to be monitored during the whole migration period —, half of this movement has passed by 14th September. Althought the Black Stork is a transsaharian migrant, it did not show any signs of earlier passage dates. On the other hand, annual bird counts increased since 1981 at Organbidexka and 1986 at Lindux, with a mean rate of change per year of about 3%. This index of migratory population of black storks seems to be in accordance with the recolonization of the species in Western Europe over the same period.

Page 108
Suivi de la migration postnuptiale de la Cigogne noire par le Détroit de Gibraltar
Monitoring of the autumn migration of the Black Stork via the Straits of Gibraltar
Alejandro ONRUBIA, José Luis TELLERIA & Luis Santiago CANO ALONSO
ABSTRACT
Black Storks nesting in western Europe migrate via the Strait of Gibraltar (Spain). The annual monitory of numbers passing in autumn has been conducted since 1999 within the framework of the “MigreS program”. An average of about 2 500 individuals is monitored each autumn with a maximum of 3 280 in 2002.
RESULTS
The number of Black Storks crossing the Strait of Gibraltar each year has increased since the monitoring began in 1999, although it now seems to have stabilised at around 2 500 birds per year. The maximum number of individuals counted was 3 280 in 2002. These figures should be taken with caution, as they represent a sample obtained according to a standardised protocol, as the actual number of Black Storks crossing the Strait of Gibraltar is higher.

Page 110
Menaces sur les zones d’hivernage des espèces migratrices en Afrique de l’Ouest
Threats on the wintering grounds of migratory species in West Africa
Damien CHEVALLIER, Paul BROSSAULT, Nicolas GENDRE, François BAILLON, Robin DUPONNOIS, Frédéric CHAPALAIN, Luc STRENNA, Dieudonné YAMEOGO & Yvon LE MAHO
Abstract
The river habitat is the best available habitat and also the only habitat upon which the Black Storks can depend for long-term survival. If the gradual drying up of river areas affects this fish-eater species is the major factor knows, other factors are involved in the preference or avoidance of some habitat of this migratory species. Indeed, the human activities (fishing and cropping) present in and along the rivers, can play great role on the presence or absence of Black Stork on their foraging areas (rivers or ponds). In West Africa, the river habitat is clearly the best available habitat upon which the men can depend for their activities. The main threat seems to be the possible plan to convert habitat along the foraging areas into pastures and/or crop cultivations at a high scale. In this context, conservation measures must integrate the protection of foraging areas selected by this species, but also delimited a protection perimeter along the riparian habitat at these foraging areas, in order to avoid considerable overlap in the natu- ral resources used by farmers, fishermen and Black Storks. The aim of the present paper was to studied, in wintering areas, the habitat preferences of the nine Black Storks (Ciconia nigra) tracked by satellite in West Africa (Sahelian and Soudano-Sahelian zones) between 1998 and 2012. In the same time, we followed a Black stork population by direct observation in the Nazinga Reserve (Burkina Faso) and Ghana. Comparison between the smallest core area (K50) and 95% fixed Kernel home range (K95) revealed habitat preferences within the home range
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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Post by Anne7 »

.
The 6th international Black Stork congress
hosted by the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council (France)
(continuation)
Ornithos Hors-série 1 - 2016

https://cigogne-noire.fr/IMG/pdf/hs_orn ... _opt-2.pdf


Part 5. Coopération et politique environnementale / Cooperation and environnemental policy

Page 120
Coopération décentralisée et préservation de la Cigogne noire. Cas de la coopération entre la Région Centre (France) et l’Association des Maires et Parlementaires du Gorgol (Mauritanie)
Decentralised cooperation and conservation of the Black stork. The case of cooperation between the Region Centre (France) and the Association of Gorgol Mayors and Parliamentarians (Mauritania)
Amanda MICHÉ, Aurélie MILHAVET & Abderrahim EL KHANTOUR
Abstract
In 2002 the région Centre (France) signed a convention of decentralized cooperation agreement with the Majors and Parliamentarians from the Gorgol region of southern Mauritania.
Within this framework a resources centre for the local authorities was created at Kaedi, the Gorgol regional capital, as part of its remit is to support local development through proposing training and advice to local electorate for, among other things, the sustainable management of the natural resources of their administrative area.
Part of France’s Black Stork population breeds in the region centre and migrates through West Africa including the Gorgol region, this concrete link helps in bringing together the two regions. Furthermore, the region Centre adopted a regional biodiversity strategy in October 2011. Through this strategy, the region wishes to declare that biodiversity can be a factor of economic and scientific development. This strategy presents an operational action plan applicable to all regional policies. The promotion of international partnerships and exchanges in order to protect and valorize biodiversity are objectives of international and inter-regional politics. Moreover, those censusing Black Storks at a region level have formed a network: the Black Stork Regional group. ...

Page 125
Politique de préservation de la biodiversité en Bourgogne : de la conservation des espèces à celle des continuités écologiques... Exemple de la Cigogne noire
Burgundy region’s biodiversity conservation policy: from species preservation through to ecological continuity. Example of Black Stork
Marie THOMAS
Abstract
The Burgundy region (eastern France) has been working on biodiversity conservation for about fifteen years. In June 2006 in the face of an accelerating worsening of the state of its natural heritage it adopted a biodiversity action plan aiming to protect the region’s endangered species and their habitats.
This conservation policy includes the study and protection of ecological communities and has an aim to better free movement of species. The Burgundy region has, since 2009, committed itself to a preliminary study of the identification, conservation and restoration of the regions ecology in order to produce a tool that takes into consideration the green and blue network in town and country planning projects. The “Grenelle de l’Environnement” has strengthened the necessity to consider territorial continuity using this “green and blue network” within town and country planning, by setting the objective for 2012; of a formalized framework within a regional plan of ecological coherence (SRCE). The regional study, taking into account the requirements set out in the “Grenelle de l’Environnement” should serve as a reference for the elaboration of this document, being a statutory strategic framework.
The region’s support for the Black Stork action plan over the period 2010 – 2012 was within its working framework on biodiversity conservation which has made necessary the consideration of ecological continuity on a regional and inter-regional scale. The protection of this flagship species and its habitats (forest areas, wetlands) implies a consideration of the guidelines of the “green and blue network” and therefore conservation of all other species found within these habitats. The constitution of a Black Stork network and emergence of a regional protection strategy will need to become operational in the future on a national and international scale.

Page 132
État des Lieux des cigognes au Maroc
Present situation of storks in Morocco
Abderrahmane CHEMLALI
Abstract
White Storks, whether nesting, over-wintering or migrants have always been accepted in Morocco. Indeed, there is a rehabilitation centre open in Berkane, managed by the APROCIB. Black Storks migrate through Morocco using two principle routes. ... As long as the stopovers and migratory routes of the White and Black Storks in Africa are poorly known in this technological age, and despite the great scientific and logistical efforts made by the European countries where these storks nest, it is undeniable that the work of emerging ornithological institutions and personalities, especially in Africa, including Morocco, will remain scattered.
This observation calls for the development of several partnership approaches, in order to better combine our efforts to unravel the intercontinental migratory routes, full of pitfalls and adventures for these waders. ...

Page 135
Le bassin du fleuve Sénégal, zone d’importance majeure pour l’hivernage des Cigognes noires
The Senegal river catchment basin is a highly important overwintering area for Black Storks
Abdallahi DIARRA & Paul BROSSAULT
Abstract
The Sahel zone in southern Mauritania along the Senegal river is an important staging area for migrant Black Storks and for some birds an annual overwintering site. However, the species has no protection status there.
The CODESEN (a network of non-governmental organizations concerned with the defence of the environement and development of the Senegal basin) hopes to increase our knowledge of the species and promote its protection.

Page 138
La Cigogne noire au ranch de Nazinga (Burkina Faso)
The Black Stork at the Nazinga ranch (Burkina Faso)
Dieudonné YAMÉOGO, Damien CHEVALLIER & Paul BROSSAULT
Abstract
Burkina Faso is part of a vast Sahel zone of West Africa that is occupied by the Black Stork in winter. Wetlands in protected areas are particularly used, Nazinga ranch a good example, used by tens of birds. Nocturnal perching sites are particularly threatened.
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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Anne7
Registered user
Posts: 7590
Joined: April 15th, 2016, 3:26 pm
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Post by Anne7 »

.
The 6th international Black Stork congress
hosted by the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council (France)
(continuation)
Ornithos Hors-série 1 - 2016

https://cigogne-noire.fr/IMG/pdf/hs_orn ... _opt-2.pdf


Part 6. Nidifcation / Nesting

Page 142
Méthode d’estimation des effectifs et de recherche de nids pour la Cigogne noire :
les résultats d’une étude menée en Biélorussie
A methods of estimating numbers and searching for Black Stork’s nests: results of a study in Belarus
Marina DMITRENOK, Valery DOMBROVSKI & Pavel PAKUL
Abstract
A census of the Black Storks was conducted during the breeding season (late April, June) in the years 2006-2012 in Zakaznik "Moyenne Pripyat", in the south of Belarus over an area of 150 km2. We used visual methods backed-up by the searching the nests during winter. The density of terri- torial pairs in the monitored area is very high (28,8 - 32,7 pairs per 100 km2 of forest) but reproductive success was only 23-40% according to the year. We found that the visual method of mapping territorial pairs using a telescope is effective in counting Black Storks.
Conducting visual surveys at the beginning and at the end of the breeding season showed that the most complete idea of the number and distribution of Black Stork nesting sites was obtained from those surveys carried out in April.

Page 148
Cigognes noires tourangevines, installation et choix d’un habitat
Black Stork in central France: occupation and choice of habitat
Jean-Frédéric BAETA, Julien PRÉSENT, Yvon GUENESCHEAU, Pierre CABARD, Louis SALLÉ et Renaud BAETA
abstract
Since 1973 the Black Stork Ciconia nigra has been breeding in wooded areas of the Indre-et-Loire and Maine-et-Loire departments. Almost 40 years a er the first French breeding attempt, the Black Stork still nests in Indre-et-Loire with 3 nests watched each year (of a total of 5 or 6 suspected breeding pairs). Based on data of 43 breeding attempts monitored between 1973 and 2011, we summarize the breeding of the Black Stork in these two departments. We discuss habitat characteristics, reproductive success and fecundity. Maritime pine Pinus pinaster is nearly always used for nesting with only one exception. Breeding sites are nearly always placed within a mosaic of habitats that includes forest surrounded meadows, small streams, marshes and ponds. Productivity per breeding pair has remained stable with a relatively high and constant number of fledged young per nest (mean = 3,00) which could correspond to a population increase. Between 1973 and 2011, we estimate that 165 young fledged in the study area (123 observed young). However, it is questioned whether this population will persist due to landscape modifications and disturbance, mainly due to intense forestry activities that regularly lead to Black Storks deserting their nests in the two departments.

Page 156
Le baguage des Cigognes noires en République Tchèque : premiers résultats et données intéressantes
Black Stork ringing in the Czech Republic: preliminary and interesting results
Frantisek POJER & Petr KAFKA
During the last 60 years more than 5.000 Black Storks were ringed in the Czech Republic: they provide approx. 1.650 recoveries. Using colour plastic rings with alphanumeric code, which can be read in field, approved to be extremely useful.
Through the Czech Republic, there is a Black Stork ́s migratory divide, therefore storks use both migration flyways - western and eastern. The Black Storks ringed in the Czech Republic were most often observed in Israel, Hungary and in West European countries.
In 1994-2012, in total approx. 3.100 Black Storks were marked weith plastic rings, almost all of them as nestlings, in the Czech Republic. During the last five years, more than 250 individuals are marked annually. The birds marked with metal rings have provided 116 recoveries, while those marked with plastic rings 1.560.
The Black Stork marked with ring code 614J displays the highest number of records, namely 71, mostly in France. The Black Stork marked with ring code 6MH was recorded 54 times in Israel and on a nest in the Czech Republic. The oldest bird was ringed just in 1994: in 2012, it successfuly fledged the young. In total, 55 breeding birds were identified in the Czech Republic due to their rings – all read on a nest (8 individuals with a metal ring, 44 with a plastic one a 3 from abroad).

Page 160
Pose d’un nid de remplacement et consolidation d’un nid
Construction of a replacement nest and reinforcement of another
Erecting a platform
In March 2009, we observed the building of a Black Stork nest in the Haute-Marne department. It appeared that the nest built on an unforked branch of an oak was unstable. The nest, eventually quite large, finally fell to the ground when finished. Laying hadn’t started and the site was abandoned. Fearing that the pair wouldn’t return the following year we erected an artificial nest platform in January 2010 in exactly the place of the fallen nest. However, the pair didn’t return.
Reinforcement of a nest
In the Côte-d’Or department, we reinforced a nest site that appeared to be unsure. Fixing an transversal branch was sufficient to consolidate the nest. The pair nested successfully the following two years.
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
User avatar
Anne7
Registered user
Posts: 7590
Joined: April 15th, 2016, 3:26 pm
Location: Belgium

Post by Anne7 »

.
The 6th international Black Stork congress
hosted by the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council (France)
(continuation)
Ornithos Hors-série 1 - 2016

https://cigogne-noire.fr/IMG/pdf/hs_orn ... _opt-2.pdf


Part 7. Domaine vital et zones de gagnage / Home range and feeding grounds


Page 163
Éco-éthologie de la Cigogne noire : caractérisation des zones de gagnage
Eco-ethology of the Black Stork: characteristics of feeding sites
Thomas PRUVOST, Paul BROSSAULT & Damien CHEVALLIER
Abstract:
In order to try and stop the decline in biodiversity, naturalists fixed a major aim of identifying the reasons for species declines and the loss of biodiversity in general. In this context the Black Stork’s Ciconia nigra ecology has been studied. Spatial and temporal variations in the specie’s habitat use were precisely investigated over a large area using birds equipped with Argos emitters. Until now, there has been no precise study on this specie’s ecology in Europe during the breeding season. Thanks to a satellite study we can now characterize feeding areas used by Black Storks during the breeding season.
Conclusion:
This study allows us to identify the various variables that influence the selection of feeding areas by the Black Stork. To summarise, a typical section would be a watercourse, with a forest within 150 metres and the majority of the surrounding area occupied, buildings located further than 500 metres away and footpaths further than 250 metres away. With regard to the variables specific to the watercourse, the sinuosity should be low and the depth between 10 and 40 cm, with rooted banks that have the potential to provide occasional hiding places.
The above results concern few individuals. It would therefore be interesting to study other individuals and to extend the study area to other regions, in order to see if these results are representative of the selection of feeding areas by the Black Stork in France or in Western Europe.

Page 169
Influence du drainage forestier sur la qualité des zones de gagnage de la Cigogne noire en Estonie
The influence of forest drainage on the quality of foraging waterbodies of the Black Stork in Estonia
Raul ROSENVALD, Renno NELLIS, Ain NURMLA & Tarmo EVESTUS
The Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) is a protected bird species with a declining population in Estonia. We examined the hypothesis that the degradation of the Black Storks foraging habitats is caused by extensive artificial forest drainage.
We studied the quality of di erent types of flowing waterbodies (natural and straightened streams and drainage ditches) as storks foraging habitats. We collected daily GPS-tracking data from ten adult storks in the breeding seasons of 2007–2010 (on average, 183 feeding events on waterbodies per stork per year) and described the characteristics of feeding and randomly choisen waterbodies.
The greatest number (35%) of feeding events (from all types of waterbodies) was on drainage ditches, with 30% on straightened streams and 20% on natural streams. However, the number of feeding events per km of waterbody (within a 20 kilometers radius of the nest) was significantly higher for natural and straightened streams compared to ditches. Also the number of revi- sits to individual waterbodies was lower on drainage deatches for every year. Revisits to straightened and natural streams did not di er from each other, except in the dry year of 2007, when natural streams were significantly more important feeding places than straightened streams. Revisiting probability was also influenced by width and depth of waterbodies, distance from nest, flow rate and water transparency. Compared with randomly-chosen flowing waters, the stork feeding waterbodies were much more accessible to storks; more rocky and clay bottoms, transparent water, and significantly less muddy bottom.
Foraging drainage ditches were wider, flowed faster, had better access for storks and had less overgrowth or muddy bottoms than randomly choisen ditches. Thus, with regard to reconstruction of ditches, we would recommend increasing the variability of the flow rate and their accessibility (shrub clearing) as well as cleaning muddy sections of water courses, which all could increase the quality of the ditches as feeding places for storks. Although forest drainage enhances the number of foraging waterbodies for Black Storks, the quality of artificial waterbodies as feeding places for storks is not good; additionally, forest drainage reduces the quality of natural waterbodies. Reconstruction of drainage ditches could enhance their quality as feeding places; it is especially important to reduce the speed at which ditches become dry during dry summers.

Page 172
Suivi satellitaire de la Cigogne noire dans la vallée de Shidu (province de Pékin - Chine)
Black stork satellite tracking research in Shidu (Beijing - China)
Tengyu MA, Jianming HONG
abstract
The Black Stork Ciconia nigra is distributed throughout China with the exception of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. The birds winter mainly in the Yangtze river basin, in South and South-west China as well as a few other regions. In recent years it has been found breeding to the north of the Yellow river basin, in Shandong, Shanxi and Beijing provinces in North-east China, and Shaanxi, Gansu, and Xinjiang provinces in North-west China. In 1989 the Black Stork was listed as a Class 1 key nationally protected species in China and in 1998 was included in the China Red Data Book of endangered animals (birds volume).
Two Argos equipped Black Storks were followed from February 2011 to February 2013. These two adults were captured in cage traps on the Juma river in the Shidu valley, Beijing province. We received one or two localizations per day.

Page 176
Les Cigognes noires nichent-elles plus près des bâtiments, routes, lisières forestières et du couple voisin, quand leur population s’accroît, en Pologne centrale ?
Do Black Storks settle closer to buildings, roads, forest edges and neighbouring pairs during their present population growth in central Poland?
Piotr ZIELINSKI, Bartosz JANIC, Michal STOPCZYNSKI, Anna GAPYS, Kamilo SIUTA, Jerzy BANBURA
After a drastic decline in the Black Stork population in Poland during the first half of the 20th century it started to increase mainly in eastern and northern Poland, increase in central Poland started later and was much slower.
The population in Lodz province of central Poland (Lodz voivodeship) increased from merely three breeding pairs in the 1940s to 76 in 2012. The greatest increase in the number of breeding pairs in central Poland was recorded in the 1970s and 1980s. The density of the Black Stork recorded in 2012 was 0.42 pairs per 100 km2 over the total study area (18 219 km2) and 1,98 pairs per 100 km2 over the forested area (3 831 km2).
Although forests cover only 21% of central Poland (Lodz voivodeship), the population of the Black Stork in that area is still increasing.
Data on nest locations in subsequent decades (1970- 1979; 1980-1989; 1990-1999; 2000-2009; 2010-2012) allowed us to compare changes in the average distance of new nests to the nearest buildings, public roads, forest edges and the nest of the nearest pair. These distances to the nearest buildings, public roads and forest edges did not change significantly (AnOVA, P>0.05) in subsequent decades, while the distance to the nearest neighbouring pair decreased significantly from 13.8 km in 1980s to 3.9 km in the years 2010-2012 (AnOVA F(4,65)=4.83; P=0.002).
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
User avatar
Anne7
Registered user
Posts: 7590
Joined: April 15th, 2016, 3:26 pm
Location: Belgium

Post by Anne7 »

.
The 6th international Black Stork congress
hosted by the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council (France)
(continuation)
Ornithos Hors-série 1 - 2016

https://cigogne-noire.fr/IMG/pdf/hs_orn ... _opt-2.pdf


Part 8. Gestion, exploitation forestière et protection / Management, forestry practices and protection

Page 179
La Cigogne noire dans le futur Parc national des Forêts de Champagne et Bourgogne : enjeux et perspectives
The Black Stork in the future Forests national park in France: issues and prospects
Christophe GALLEMANT & Matthieu DELCAMP
abstract
The “Forests de Champagne et Bougogne” public interest group (GIP) was created in 2010 in order to create, on the Langres plateau, a national park designed to protect an area of France’s broad-leaved, lowland forest.
The Black Stork is one of the most important species locally. It has gradually increased in the GIP area since first occuring in the 1990s. 5 or 6 pairs now breed there, about 10% of the French breeding population.
This underlines the ecological value of an extensive, undisturbed forest with protected river network with numerous springs and streams of very clean water. The future park will allow for better environmental protection and should help the local Black Stork population.
There’s a necessity for a better understanding of the species ecology, especially movement between the forest nest and feeding sites along rivers for its conservation. It would be useful to define the final limits of the national park which should include most habitats used by storks, this through the implementation of the ecological solidarity concept di erentiating a core zone from the surrounding area.
For this reason the GIP joined an inter-regional program coordinated by the French Office national des forêts (ONF) to improve knowledge of the Black Stork in the Champagne-Ardenne and Burgundy area. Satellite tracking has proved to be useful in estimating home range sizes and studying habitat selection during the breeding season.
It would also be worth studying the Black Stork outside the future national park boundaries as it is a European- African migrant. This could lead to a partnership with other national parks and nature reserves involved in conserving this emblematic species.

Page 183
Concilier gestion forestière et protection des sites de nidi cation de la Cigogne noire
Reconciling forestry management with the protection of Black Stork nesting sites
abstract
The Black Stork Ciconia nigra is a rare species in France with 30 pairs surveyed every year. This pro- tected forest nesting species is classed of European importance and as such specific measures should be taken to conserve it.
The National Forestry authority (“Office national des forêts” - ONF) chose this species as an indicator of the value of government forests for rare bird. The success of Black Stork nests should therefore be a priority in ONF managed forests that are exploited in a way that forestry work could disturb nesting pairs. In most European countries it’s naturalists and scientists that follow the success of nests, sometimes in conflict with foresters. The experience gained in France over the last twenty years has allowed us to show that with a little precaution, forestry activities and Black Stork protection are compatible. It’s to be noted that Black Storks nest in forests without special protection with management decisions based on economic grounds.
The surveying carried out by the ONF, by means of its national Black Stork network attached to the national birdlife network has provided data on more than 100 broods since 1995. In 2011, 21 of a known 28 nests (75 %) where in ONF managed forests.
Here we propose simple measures that can be put into practice concerning tree extraction and felling in order to better manage the situation in the event of a nest being found. To this end, an internal practical notice accompanies the Black Stork guide sent to foresters, demonstrating the ONF’s desire to protect this species.

Page 187
Liens entre facteurs économiques et état des populations de Cigogne noire nicheuses en Ukraine
The influence of economic factors on the state of Ukraine’s breeding Black Stork population
Igor GORBAN & Ostap GORBAN
Abstract
The economic environment in Ukraine has lead to an increasing demand for wood. There is an important turnover of forestry staff and the involvement of seasonal loggers with no concern for the environment has lead to a degradation of the habitat for Black Storks.
Usually local researchers enumerate di erent ecological factors that influence state of Black Stork breeding population. Among them soil drainage, habitat fragmentation, irrational forestry and violation of environmental legislation. The last one is most strongly related to economical reasons. One of the main reasons that complicate management of conservation of Black Stork population in Ukraine is high turnover rate of employees in forestry. Especially it is ease noticeable on the lowest level of forestry workers, which increasingly have no forestry and ecological education. ...

Page 190
Le suivi des nichées de Cigogne noire, un indicateur de la gestion durable des forêts domaniales en France
Monitoring Black Stork nests, an indicator of sustainable management of state-owned forests
Office national des forêts, France
State forests’ review in France
The French government requested that the National Forestry O ice (ONF) proceed with a review of state-ow- ned woodlands and forests in France every five years. This review provides information on whether the level of production, forestry work and other activities contribute to improving the quality of managed wooded areas. 42 indicators provide for an analysis of the state of go- vernment forests on economic, ecological and social grounds. This will enable any improvements or deterio- rations to be identified.
The Black Stork, an indicator species
Three species of high heritage value, listed in Annex I of the European directive 79/409/EC, were chosen as indicator species: Black Stork (Ciconia nigra), Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) and Red kite (Milvus milvus).
The Black Stork is not currently concerned by any official conservation action plan, it being judged a non-priority species by the French Ministry of the Environment. However, the ONF has implemented forestry practices aimed at its conservation. These includes taking into consideration the nesting site and conservation of nesting trees and their immediate surroundings.

Page 192
Comment réduire les électrocutions et les collisions des oiseaux avec les lignes électriques : la balise avifaune Firefly...
How to reduce bird electrocutions and collisions with electric power lines: the Firefly bird scarer...
abstract
The FireFly is a clearly visible «bird scarer» that deviates birds and also prevents them from colliding with, for example, overhead power lines. The device uses sunlight reflection during daylight hours and luminescent light emission when it’s dark. This sparkling and light reflection allows birds to change their flight direction and divert around the marked wires, avoiding collisions. The effectiveness of the Firefly increases with rotational speed.
“Clearly, animals know more than we think, and think a great deal more than we know.”
— Irene Pepperberg
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